A CIVILIZATION is any complex society characterized by urban development.,social stratification,a form of government and symbolic systems of communication such as writing.
Civilizations are intimately associated with and often further defined by other socio-politico-economic characteristics,incloding centralization,the domestication of both humans and other organisms,specialization of labour,culturally ingrained ideologies of progress and supremacism,manumental architecture,taxation,societal depandence upon farming and expansionism.
Commenly civilizations are rice and developed in river side in through the world.Historically,civilization has often been understood as a larger and more advanced culture.In contrast to smaller, suposedly primative cultures.In this broad sense, a civilization contrasts with non-centralized tribal societies,inclouding the cultures of nomadic pastoralists,Neolithic societies or huntergatherers,but some times it also contrasts with the cultures found within civilization s themselves.
Civilizations are organized in densely populated setelments divided in to hierarchical social classes with a rulling elite andsubordinate urban and rural populations,which engage in intensive agriculture,mining,small scale manufacture and trade.Civilization cocentrates power,extending human control over the rest of nature,inclouding over other humanbeings.
Civilization as its etymology (below)suggests,is a concept originally linked to towns and cities.Theearliest emergence of civilizations generally associated with the final stages of neolithic.
Revolution, culminating in the relativeely rapid process of urban revolution and state formation,a political development associated with the appearance of a governing elite.
Civilization is seen as an advanced, organized way of life. It instilled a way of life that could be considered as an adaptation to particular environmental and cultural contexts. When it became necessary for large numbers of people to live in close proximity, they brought in planning, organization and specialization. Settlements were planned and laid out, a polity emerged, society became organized and food production and craft production were regulated. As civilizations began to take
shape, huge buildings were built, the art of writing developed and science and technology contributed to the betterment of society. The Egyptian, the Mesopotamian, the Chinese and the Indus were the important early civilizations. While these civilizations flourished in certain regions, people in other parts of the world lived as hunters-gatherers and pastoralists. The hunters-gatherers and pastoralists maintained their relationships with these civilizations through interactions. Their history is also equally important. During the time of these civilizations, South India witnessed the emergence of Neolithic agropastoral communities and Microlithic form of life by hunter-gatherers.
The longitudinal difference between Gujarat in the west and Arunachal Pradesh in the east is about30°.
The Earth rotates through its axis around 360° in 24 hours. Thus, a difference of 1° longitude will make a difference of 4 minutes in time. The difference in longitude between Gujarat (68°7 ‘E) and Arunachal Pradesh (97°25 ‘ E) is 29°18’.
Hence the difference in local time between these two places is 29°18′ X 4′ (minutes) = 1 hour 57 minutes 12 seconds (approximately 2 hours). Since Arunachal Pradesh is towards east, it will have sunrise about two hours earlier than the sunrise at Gujarat which is in the west.
In order to avoid these differences, Indian standard time is calculated. The local time of the central meridian of India is the standard time of India. India’s central meridian is 82°30′ E longitude. It passes through Mirzapur and roughly bisects the country in terms of longitude. Th e IST is 5.30 hrs ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
Fair Trade is a way of doing business that ultimately aims to keep small farmers an active part of the world Market place, and aims to empower consumer to make purchases that support their values. Fair Trade is a set of business practices voluntarily adopted by the producers and buyers of agricultural commodities and hand-made crafts that are designed to advance many economic, social and environmental goals, including, • Raising and stabilizing the incomes of small Scale farmers, farm workers and artisans. • More equitably distributing the economic gains, opportunities and risks associated with the production and sale of these goods. • Increasing the organizational and commercial capacities of producer groups. • Promoting labor rights and the right workers to organize. • Promoting safe and sustainable farming Methods and working conditions.
Fair trade is about better prices, decent working conditions and fair terms of trade for farmers and workers. It’s about supporting the development of thriving farming and worker communities that have more central over their futures and protecting the environment in which they live and work.
Early this morning it was dull and dismal, but as today is cleaning lady day I am a little later with a good morning greeting to all. In the meanwhile the cloud cover is clearing and blue sky is peeping though accompanied by sunshine so would could be better. My dinner is cooking and the cleaning lady has completed her work for the week.
Yesterday I had a pleasant surprise when I arrived in town. It was monthly market day and the stalls were there. There were more people. Now and again you see the masked faces, although it is not obligatory (yet). I only wear mine when in the store, It is certainly a different world we are now living in.
There were the usual trinklets and bric-a-brac to see but it was not as crowded as usual. Since the virus attack it seems that people are no longer…