A CIVILIZATION is any complex society characterized by urban development.,social stratification,a form of government and symbolic systems of communication such as writing.

Civilizations are intimately associated with and often further defined by other socio-politico-economic characteristics,incloding centralization,the domestication of both humans and other organisms,specialization of labour,culturally ingrained ideologies of progress and supremacism,manumental architecture,taxation,societal depandence upon farming and expansionism.

Commenly civilizations are rice and developed in river side in through the world.Historically,civilization has often been understood as a larger and more advanced culture.In contrast to smaller, suposedly primative cultures.In this broad sense, a civilization contrasts with non-centralized tribal societies,inclouding the cultures of nomadic pastoralists,Neolithic societies or huntergatherers,but some times it also contrasts with the cultures found within civilization s themselves.

Civilizations are organized in densely populated setelments divided in to hierarchical social classes with a rulling elite andsubordinate urban and rural populations,which engage in intensive agriculture,mining,small scale manufacture and trade.Civilization cocentrates power,extending human control over the rest of nature,inclouding over other humanbeings.

Civilization as its etymology (below)suggests,is a concept originally linked to towns and cities.Theearliest emergence of civilizations generally associated with the final stages of neolithic.

Revolution, culminating in the relativeely rapid process of urban revolution and state formation,a political development associated with the appearance of a governing elite.

*History of concept


cultural identity

complex systems


fall of civilizations


* non-human civilization

Ancient Civilizations

Civilization is seen as an advanced,
organized way of life. It instilled a way of life
that could be considered as an adaptation to
particular environmental and cultural contexts.
When it became necessary for large numbers of
people to live in close proximity, they brought
in planning, organization and specialization.
Settlements were planned and laid out, a
polity emerged, society became organized
and food production and craft production
were regulated. As civilizations began to take

shape, huge buildings were built, the art of
writing developed and science and technology
contributed to the betterment of society.
The Egyptian, the Mesopotamian, the
Chinese and the Indus were the important
early civilizations. While these civilizations
flourished in certain regions, people in other
parts of the world lived as hunters-gatherers
and pastoralists. The hunters-gatherers and
pastoralists maintained their relationships
with these civilizations through interactions.
Their history is also equally important. During
the time of these civilizations, South India
witnessed the emergence of Neolithic agropastoral communities and Microlithic form of
life by hunter-gatherers.

Un medic specialist în Anestezie și Terapie Intensivă din Cluj vorbește despre un fenomen teribil provocat de Covid-19, hipoxia silențioasă: “Oamenii se sufocă și nu își dau seama. Vin, vorbesc cu noi, dar ei nu au aer și ajung pe ATI fără să știe că au saturația la 50%”

Indian Standard Time (IST)

The longitudinal difference between Gujarat
in the west and Arunachal Pradesh in the east is about30°.

The Earth rotates through its axis
around 360° in 24 hours. Thus, a difference of
1° longitude will make a difference of 4
minutes in time. The difference in longitude
between Gujarat (68°7 ‘E) and Arunachal
Pradesh (97°25 ‘ E) is 29°18’.

Hence the difference in local time between these two
places is 29°18′ X 4′ (minutes) = 1 hour
57 minutes 12 seconds (approximately
2 hours). Since Arunachal Pradesh is towards
east, it will have sunrise about two hours earlier
than the sunrise at Gujarat which is in the west.

In order to avoid these differences, Indian
standard time is calculated. The local time of
the central meridian of India is the standard
time of India. India’s central meridian
is 82°30′ E longitude. It passes through
Mirzapur and roughly bisects the country
in terms of longitude. Th e IST is 5.30 hrs
ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).


Fair Trade Practices and World Trade Organization

Fair Trade is a way of doing business that
ultimately aims to keep small farmers an active part
of the world Market place, and aims to empower
consumer to make purchases that support their
values. Fair Trade is a set of business practices
voluntarily adopted by the producers and buyers
of agricultural commodities and hand-made crafts
that are designed to advance many economic,
social and environmental goals, including,
• Raising and stabilizing the incomes of small Scale farmers, farm workers and artisans.
• More equitably distributing the economic
gains, opportunities and risks associated
with the production and sale of these goods.
• Increasing the organizational and
commercial capacities of producer groups.
• Promoting labor rights and the right
workers to organize.
• Promoting safe and sustainable farming
Methods and working conditions.

Fair trade is about better prices, decent
working conditions and fair terms of trade for
farmers and workers. It’s about supporting the
development of thriving farming and worker
communities that have more central over their
futures and protecting the environment in
which they live and work.

Good Morning

Chronicles of an Anglo Swiss

Early this morning it was dull and dismal, but as today is cleaning lady day I am a little later with a good morning greeting to all. In the meanwhile the cloud cover is clearing and blue sky is peeping though accompanied by sunshine so would could be better. My dinner is cooking and the cleaning lady has completed her work for the week.

Yesterday I had a pleasant surprise when I arrived in town. It was monthly market day and the stalls were there. There were more people. Now and again you see the masked faces, although it is not obligatory (yet). I only wear mine when in the store, It is certainly a different world we are now living in.

There were the usual trinklets and bric-a-brac to see but it was not as crowded as usual. Since the virus attack it seems that people are no longer…

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